Covid-19 restrictions are being tightened across much of Europe as a second wave of the virus sweeps through the continent.

Infections are surging ahead but this could be blamed on a higher number of tests being carried out. However, countries that presumed to have the pandemic under control are now reporting an escalation in infections.

Many nations have toughened measures in a bid to cope with the crisis with French capital Paris closing bars and introducing a swathe of new controls.

More countries are also expected to be added to the UK government travel quarantine list.

Here is the latest situation in countries popular with UK visitors.

Spain

Capital Madrid entered a local lockdown, with its three million people only able to travel outside their neighbourhoods for essential journeys only. Bars and restaurants cannot serve after 8pm and people cannot meet in groups larger than six.

The infection rate in Madrid is around 700 cases per 100,000 people over the past fortnight with 44 per cent of new cases in the capital. Nationwide it is 300 per 100,000, the highest of any country in Europe. These are still moves to ease restrictions on destinations in the Canary Islands and Balearic islands.

Italy

The government has warned it will introduce new measures to control the virus in the coming days with a rise in infections in the south of the country concerning officials.

Restrictions could include compulsory mask-wearing outdoors and new restrictions on the size of social gatherings. The country’s infection rate has now climbed above 20 per 100,000 so it could soon be added to the UK travel quarantine list.

Cyprus

Still quarantine-fee, the island has reported a spike in infections, but it is well below the threshold for being included on the UK travel restrictions list.

Greece

Mainland Greece could be under threat from the UK government’s next quarantine review as infection rates towards at-risk levels.

Several Greek islands are already subject to UK quarantine rules. Arrivals to England and Northern Ireland from Lesvos, Tinos, Serifos, Mykonos, Crete, Santorini and Zakynthos (Zante) must go into quarantine for 14 days. Wales requires travellers from nine Greek islands to self-isolate, and Scotland has imposed quarantine on arrivals from anywhere in Greece.

Portugal

Holidays to mainland Portugal are still restricted by travel guidelines which force all passengers returning to the UK to enter quarantine for 14 days.

However, the islands of Madeira and the less-popular Azores are still quarantine-free.

Poland

Poland lost its safe-travel status last week.

Data shows that test positivity has nearly doubled increasing from 3.9 per cent to 5.8 per cent alongside a rapid increase in weekly cases. Infection rates surged to 25.9 per 100,000 from 15.6 the week previously.